By warning that free blacks would flood the North, Democrats made gains in the 1862 elections, but they did not gain control of Congress. What if the South Won the American Civil War?- whatifhub.com Approximately 640,000 Americans died in the four-year combat between the Union and Confederates which eventually resulted in a Southern defeat, keeping the United States, well, United. Historian Don Doyle has argued that the Union victory had a major impact on the course of world history. After the initial enthusiasm faded, reliance on the cohort of young men who came of age every year and wanted to join was not enough.  This was total war not in killing civilians but rather in taking provisions and forage and destroying homes, farms, and railroads, that Grant said "would otherwise have gone to the support of secession and rebellion. The Civil War would not have been fought. " These four doctrines comprised the dominant ideologies presented to the American public on the matters of slavery, the territories, and the U.S. Constitution before the 1860 presidential election.. The government would make no move to recover post offices, and if resisted, mail delivery would end at state lines. Intense combat left between 620,000 and 750,000 soldiers dead, along with an undetermined number of civilians. Beard and Mary R. Beard, whose The Rise of American Civilization (1927) spawned "Beardian historiography".  Nolan argues that the adoption of the Lost Cause perspective facilitated the reunification of the North and the South while excusing the "virulent racism" of the 19th century, sacrificing black American progress to white man's reunification. Jefferson Davis and Johnston did not adopt the name, but it is clear that the organization of units as of March 14 was the same organization that Lee received on June 1, and thus it is generally referred to today as the Army of Northern Virginia, even if that is correct only in retrospect. When Lincoln told his cabinet about his proposed emancipation proclamation, Seward advised Lincoln to wait for a victory before issuing it, as to do otherwise would seem like "our last shriek on the retreat". " U.S. (Operations in the interior of the Carolinas in 1865 are considered part of the Western Theater, while the other coastal areas … Of the approximately 180,000 United States Colored Troops, however, over 36,000 died, or 20.5 percent. Its garrison had recently moved there to avoid incidents with local militias in the streets of the city.  The Emancipation Proclamation greatly reduced the Confederacy's hope of getting aid from Britain or France. , Kentucky did not secede; for a time, it declared itself neutral. Restoration of Law in the State of Virginia. , British investors built small, fast, steam-driven blockade runners that traded arms and luxuries brought in from Britain through Bermuda, Cuba, and the Bahamas in return for high-priced cotton. The Americans believed their nation should extend to the … The number of free blacks as a proportion of the black population in the upper South increased from less than 1 percent to nearly 10 percent between 1790 and 1810 as a result of these actions. [better source needed], Lincoln called on all the states to send forces to recapture the fort and other federal properties. General Lee and top subordinates James Longstreet and Stonewall Jackson defeated McClellan in the Seven Days Battles and forced his retreat.. ", Union leaders incorrectly assumed that only a minority of Southerners were in favor of secession and that there were large numbers of southern Unionists that could be counted on. In it, Sewall condemned slavery and the slave trade and refuted many of the era's typical justifications for slavery.  This would break down to approximately 350,000 Confederate and 411,000 Union military deaths, going by the proportion of Union to Confederate battle losses. However, London and Washington were able to smooth over the problem after Lincoln released the two. He also deems the Lost Cause "a caricature of the truth. While Walker's estimates were originally dismissed because of the 1870 census's undercounting, it was later found that the census was only off by 6.5% and that the data Walker used would be roughly accurate.. This policy I believe exercised a material influence in hastening the end.  This section gives an abbreviated overview of the most notable works. The Union, in turn, did not directly engage him. All Nations Warned Against Harboring Their Privateers. After expanding its mission in 2014 to include battlefields of the Revolutionary War and War of 1812, the non-profit became the American Battlefield Trust in May 2018, operating with two divisions, the Civil War Trust and the Revolutionary War Trust. Black troops made up 10 percent of the Union death toll, they amounted to 15 percent of disease deaths but less than 3 percent of those killed in battle. The war effectively ended in April 1865 when Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his troops to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia. Following his surrender, he wrote a letter to his troops stating that, due to overwhelming resources and numbers, the war could not be won, notes History Today. "The Sentimental Novel: The Example of Harriet Beecher Stowe" by Gail K. Smith, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDonald1995 (. He stated that it would be U.S. policy to only collect import duties at its ports; there could be no serious injury to the South to justify the armed revolution during his administration.  However, a 2017 study challenges this, noting that while some Southern elites retained their economic status, the turmoil of the 1860s created greater opportunities for economic mobility in the South than in the North. Maryland, Delaware, Missouri, and Kentucky were slave states that were opposed to both secession and coercing the South. The one clear Confederate victory in the West was the Battle of Chickamauga. In 1863, the Russian Navy's Baltic and Pacific fleets wintered in the American ports of New York and San Francisco, respectively.. University of Connecticut Professor James Downs states that tens to hundreds of thousands of slaves died during the war from disease, starvation, or exposure and that if these deaths are counted in the war's total, the death toll would exceed 1 million. Northern "free soil" interests vigorously sought to curtail any further expansion of slave territory. Anderson gave a conditional reply that the Confederate government rejected, and Davis ordered General P. G. T. Beauregard to attack the fort before a relief expedition could arrive. " After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. If these had been slave states, and their electoral votes gone to Abraham Lincoln’s main opponent, Lincoln would not have been elected president. Constitution. January 1, 2012. The Civil War would have a huge impact on American politics in the years to come. Most historians agree that no matter what a soldier thought about when he went into the war, the experience of combat affected him profoundly and sometimes altered his reasons for continuing the fight.  Its mission was to blockade Confederate ports, take control of the river system, defend against Confederate raiders on the high seas, and be ready for a possible war with the British Royal Navy.  Meanwhile, the main riverine war was fought in the West, where a series of major rivers gave access to the Confederate heartland. When the cautious McClellan failed to follow up on Antietam, he was replaced by Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside. The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between northern states loyal to the Union and southern states that had seceded to form the Confederate States of America. Many eligibles pooled their money to cover the cost of anyone drafted.  While not all Southerners saw themselves as fighting for slavery, most of the officers and over a third of the rank and file in Lee's army had close family ties to slavery. In western Missouri, local secessionists seized Liberty Arsenal. Upon the strong urging of President Lincoln to begin offensive operations, McClellan attacked Virginia in the spring of 1862 by way of the peninsula between the York River and James River, southeast of Richmond. The following year, the Union Army of the Gulf commanded by Major General Nathaniel P. Banks laid siege to Port Hudson for nearly eight weeks, the longest siege in US military history. The westernmost attack would originate from Kansas. The causes of secession were complex and have been controversial since the war began, but most academic scholars identify slavery as the central cause of the war. Of the 34 U.S. states in February 1861, seven Southern slave states were declared by their state governments to have seceded from the country, and the Confederate States of America was organized in rebellion against the U.S. constitutional government. Also in the spring of 1862, in the Shenandoah Valley, Stonewall Jackson led his Valley Campaign. Charles F. Ritter and Jon L. Wakelyn, eds.. Nolan, Alan T., in Gallagher, Gary W., and Alan T. Nolan. Others point to less overtly political reasons to fight, such as the defense of one's home and family, or the honor and brotherhood to be preserved when fighting alongside other men. The Army of the Peninsula was merged into it on April 12, 1862. , Leaving Atlanta, and his base of supplies, Sherman's army marched with an unknown destination, laying waste to about 20 percent of the farms in Georgia in his "March to the Sea".  Roving Confederate bands such as Quantrill's Raiders terrorized the countryside, striking both military installations and civilian settlements. The will of the Union also remained strong throughout the war years. Apple Podcasts. Each battle resulted in setbacks for the Union that mirrored what they had suffered under prior generals, though unlike those prior generals, Grant fought on rather than retreat. Lincoln warned the border states that a more radical type of emancipation would happen if his gradual plan based on compensated emancipation and voluntary colonization was rejected. This varied advent occurred in greater proportions on the 100th and 150th anniversary.  At least 100,000 Southerners deserted, or about 10 percent; Southern desertion was high because, according to one historian writing in 1991, the highly localized Southern identity meant that many Southern men had little investment in the outcome of the war, with individual soldiers caring more about the fate of their local area than any grand ideal. They came to the fore after the 1866 elections and undid much of Johnson's work.  When the Union Navy seized a blockade runner, the ship and cargo were condemned as a prize of war and sold, with the proceeds given to the Navy sailors; the captured crewmen were mostly British, and they were released.. While the military war was coming to an end, the political reintegration of the nation was to take another 12 years, known as the Reconstruction era. , The first efforts at Civil War battlefield preservation and memorialization came during the war itself with the establishment of National Cemeteries at Gettysburg, Mill Springs and Chattanooga.  In 2011, the organization was renamed, again becoming the Civil War Trust. , The Confederacy experimented with the submarine CSS Hunley, which did not work satisfactorily, and with building an ironclad ship, CSS Virginia, which was based on rebuilding a sunken Union ship, Merrimack. ", Lincoln's letter to O. H. Browning, September 22, 1861. Grant marched to the relief of Rosecrans and defeated Bragg at the Third Battle of Chattanooga, eventually causing Longstreet to abandon his Knoxville Campaign and driving Confederate forces out of Tennessee and opening a route to Atlanta and the heart of the Confederacy. It was the first time that America was staging a war against Britain, which had the most superior navy in the world.  The Confederate Congress authorized the new nation up to 100,000 troops sent by governors as early as February.  "The key to the river was New Orleans, the South's largest port [and] greatest industrial center. , Cotton diplomacy proved a failure as Europe had a surplus of cotton, while the 1860–62 crop failures in Europe made the North's grain exports of critical importance. FEATURES. About 190,000 volunteered, further enhancing the numerical advantage the Union armies enjoyed over the Confederates, who did not dare emulate the equivalent manpower source for fear of fundamentally undermining the legitimacy of slavery. The last significant battles raged around the Siege of Petersburg. , The war had utterly devastated the South, and posed serious questions of how the South would be re-integrated to the Union. The strategy of the anti-slavery forces was containment—to stop the expansion and thus put slavery on a path to gradual extinction. Nashville and central Tennessee thus fell to the Union, leading to attrition of local food supplies and livestock and a breakdown in social organization. Slavery was the central source of escalating political tension in the 1850s. , As the first seven states began organizing a Confederacy in Montgomery, the entire U.S. army numbered 16,000. 211,411 Union soldiers were captured, and 30,218 died in prison. As Union troops were resupplying the fort, Confederate troops fired artillery in a siege that lasted for two days until the surrender of Sumter‰Ûªs commander, Major Robert Anderson, notes History. Units from the Army of the Northwest were merged into the Army of the Potomac between March 14 and May 17, 1862. Confederate records compiled by historian William F. Fox list 74,524 killed and died of wounds and 59,292 died of disease. Bragg was forced to end his attempt at invading Kentucky and retreat due to lack of logistical support and lack of infantry recruits for the Confederacy in that state. The American Civil War was among the earliest industrial wars. The Civil War is one of the most studied and written about episodes in U.S. history, and remains the subject of cultural and historiographical debate. Fort Pulaski on the Georgia coast was an early target for the Union navy. " Copperheads and some War Democrats opposed emancipation, although the latter eventually accepted it as part of total war needed to save the Union. This territory (which became the states of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and part of Minnesota) doubled the size of the United States. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William Tecumseh Sherman and his march to the sea. At the Battle of Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing), in Tennessee in April 1862, the Confederates made a surprise attack that pushed Union forces against the river as night fell. Emboldened by Second Bull Run, the Confederacy made its first invasion of the North with the Maryland Campaign. , In the first year of the war, both sides had far more volunteers than they could effectively train and equip. When pro-Confederate Governor Claiborne F. Jackson called out the state militia, it was attacked by federal forces under General Nathaniel Lyon, who chased the governor and the rest of the State Guard to the southwestern corner of the state (see also: Missouri secession). This caricature wholly misrepresents and distorts the facts of the matter" in every instance. James McPherson, The War that Never Goes Away". It proved to be the largest surrender of Confederate forces. In many cases, without geographic objectives, the only target for each side was the enemy's soldier. The adoption of this compromise likely would have prevented the secession of every Southern state apart from South Carolina, but Lincoln and the Republicans rejected it. " According to Charles H. Wilson, in The Collapse of the Confederacy, "internal conflict should figure prominently in any explanation of Confederate defeat. , The American Revolution and the cause of liberty added tremendous impetus to the abolitionist cause. It was inevitable that the Northern states were to win, because they had rapidly embraced industrialization and had many advanced weapons and machinery in their possession in order to score an emphatic victory. In attempting to capture Charleston, the Union military tried two approaches, by land over James or Morris Islands or through the harbor. But in the face of overwhelming Union superiority and the Union's ironclad warships, they were unsuccessful.  The U.S. Congress followed in July, authorizing a militia draft within a state when it could not meet its quota with volunteers. Realizing that Washington could not intervene in Mexico as long as the Confederacy controlled Texas, France invaded Mexico in 1861. Grant used river transport and Andrew Foote's gunboats of the Western Flotilla to threaten the Confederacy's "Gibraltar of the West" at Columbus, Kentucky. By 1864, these violent activities harmed the nationwide anti-war movement organizing against the re-election of Lincoln. Many were equipped with ram bows, creating "ram fever" among Union squadrons wherever they threatened. Radical Republicans demanded proof that Confederate nationalism was dead and that the slaves were truly free. , From a tiny frontier force in 1860, the Union and Confederate armies had grown into the "largest and most efficient armies in the world" within a few years. The Confederates attempted to defend with the Bayou Teche Campaign, but surrendered after Vicksburg. Of all these interpretations, the states'-rights argument is perhaps the weakest. , The modern Civil War battlefield preservation movement began in 1987 with the founding of the Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites (APCWS), a grassroots organization created by Civil War historians and others to preserve battlefield land by acquiring it. Meanwhile, they were held in camps run by their army. have claimed it as a Southern grievance. I claim not to have controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me. Breaker.  It was also in this war when countries first used aerial warfare, in the form of reconnaissance balloons, to a significant effect. 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